Lewin, T M, et al., Mice Deficient in Mitochondrial Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase-1 Have Diminished Myocardial Triacylglycerol Accumulation During Lipogenic Diet and Altered Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition. Biochim Biophys Acta, 2008. 1781(6-7): 352-8.
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (GPAT1), which is located on the outer mitochondrial membrane comprises up to 30% of total GPAT activity in the heart. It is one of at least four mammalian GPAT isoforms known to catalyze the initial, committed, and rate-limiting step of glycerolipid synthesis. Because excess triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulates in cardiomyocytes in obesity and type 2 diabetes, we determined whether lack of GPAT1 would alter the synthesis of heart TAG and phospholipids after a 2-week high-sucrose diet or a 3-month high-fat diet. Even in the absence of hypertriglyceridemia, TAG increased 2-fold with both diets in hearts from wildtype mice. In contrast, hearts from Gpat1(-/-) mice contained 20-80% less TAG than the wildtype controls. In addition, hearts from Gpat1(-/-) mice fed the high-sucrose diet incorporate 60% less [(14)C]palmitate into heart TAG as compared to wildtype mice. Because GPAT1 prefers 16:0-CoA to other long-chain acyl-CoA substrates, we determined the fatty acid composition of heart phospholipids. Compared to wildtype littermate controls, hearts from Gpat1(-/-)(-/-) mice contained a lower amount of 16:0 in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol and significantly more C20:4n6. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from Gpat1(-/-)(-/-) hearts also contained higher amounts of 18:0 and 18:1. Although at least three other GPAT isoforms are expressed in the heart, our data suggest that GPAT1 contributes significantly to cardiomyocyte TAG synthesis during lipogenic or high-fat diets and influences the incorporation of 20:4n6 into heart phospholipids.