Hansen-Krone, I J, et al. High Fish plus Fish Oil Intake Is Associated with Slightly Reduced Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: The Tromso Study. J Nutr, 2014.
Current knowledge of the effect of fish consumption on risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is scarce and diverging. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fish consumption and fish oil supplements on the risk of VTE in a population-based cohort. Weekly intake of fish for dinner and intake of fish oil supplements during the previous year were registered in 23,621 persons aged 25-97 y who participated in the Tromso Study from 1994 to 1995. Incident VTE events were registered throughout follow-up (31 December 2010). Cox-regression models were used to calculate HRs for VTE, adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, physical activity, and education level. During a median of 15.8 y of follow-up there were 536 incident VTE events. High fish consumption was associated with a slightly reduced risk of VTE. Participants who ate fish >/=3 times/wk had 22% lower risk of VTE than those who consumed fish 1-1.9 times/wk (multivariable HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.01; P = 0.06). The addition of fish oil supplements strengthened the inverse association with risk of VTE. Participants who consumed fish >/=3 times/wk who additionally used fish oil supplements had 48% lower risk than those who consumed fish 1-1.9 times/wk but did not use fish oil supplements (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.79; P = 0.002). In conclusion, a high weekly intake (>/=3 times/wk) of fish was associated with a slightly reduced risk of VTE, and the addition of fish oil supplements strengthened the inverse effect.