Ghannoum, M A, et al., Metabolomics Reveals Differential Levels of Oral Metabolites in Hiv-Infected Patients: Toward Novel Diagnostic Targets. OMICS, 2011.
The objective of the current study was to characterize the profile of oral metabolites in HIV-infected patients using metabolomics. Oral wash samples were collected from 12 HIV-infected and 12 healthy individuals (matched for age, sex, and ethnicity), processed, and analyzed by metabolomics. We detected 198 identifiable and 85 nonidentifiable metabolites; 27 identifiable metabolites were differentially present (12 increased, 15 decreased) in HIV-infected patients. Elevated metabolites included p-cresol sulfate, nucleotides (e.g., allantoin), and amino acids (e.g., phenylalanine, tryptophan), whereas decreased oral metabolites included fucose, fumarate, and N-acetylglucosamine. Pathway network analysis revealed the largest multinode network in healthy versus HIV-infected patients to involve carbohydrate biosynthesis and degradation. HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) showed the largest number (12) of statistically significant metabolite correlation differences compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, the oral phenlyalanine:tyrosine ratio increased in ART-naive HIV-infected patients (mean ± SEM = 2.58 ± 0.87) compared with healthy individuals (1.33 ± 0.10, p = 0.062) or ART-experienced patients (1.78 ± 0.30, p = 0.441). This is the first study to reveal differential levels of oral metabolites in HIV-infected patients compared withj healthy volunteers, and that oral phenlyalanine:tyrosine ratio may be a useful marker for noninvasive monitoring of the immune status during HIV infection.