Rull et al. Rosiglitazone and Fenofibrate Exacerbate Liver Steatosis Journal of Proteome Research, 2014.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) play an important role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammatory, and vascular responses. We show the effect of treatment with two PPAR agonists, fenofibrate (FF) and rosiglitazone (RSG), on ob/ob and LDLR-double deficient mice, by combined gene-expression and metabolomic analyses. Male mice were daily treated for 12 weeks with RSG (10 mg·kg1−·day−1 per os (p.o.), n = 8) and FF (50 mg·kg1−· day−1 p.o., n = 8). Twelve untreated ob/ob and LDLR-double deficient mice were used as controls. To integrate the transcriptomic and metabolomic results, we designed a hierarchical algorithm, based on the average linkage method in clustering. Data were also interpreted with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis program. FF and RSG treatments significantly increased the hepatic triglyceride content in the liver when compared with the control group, and the treatments induced an increase in the number and size of hepatic lipid droplets. Both drugs simultaneously activate pro-steatotic and antisteatotic metabolic pathways with a well-ordered result of aggravation of the hepatic lipid accumulation. The present study is a cautionary note not only to researchers on the basic mechanism of the action of PPAR activators but also to the use of these compounds in clinical practice.