Bravo, C, et al., Metabolomic Analysis of Two Different Models of Delayed Preconditioning. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 2012. 55(19-26.
Recently we described an ischemic preconditioning induced by repetitive coronary stenosis, which is induced by 6 episodes of non-lethal ischemia over 3 days, and which also resembles the hibernating myocardium phenotype. When compared with traditional second window of ischemicpreconditioning using cDNA microarrays, many genes which differed in the repetitive coronary stenosis appeared targeted to metabolism. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to provide a more in depth analysis of changes in metabolism in the different models of delayedpreconditioning, i.e., second window and repetitive coronary stenosis. This was accomplished using a metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Myocardial samples from the ischemic section of porcine hearts subjected to both models of late preconditioning were compared against sham controls. Interestingly, although both models involve delayed preconditioning, their metabolic signatures were radically different; of the total number of metabolites that changed in both models (135 metabolites) only 7 changed in both models, and significantly more, p<0.01, were altered in the repetitive coronary stenosis (40%) than in the second window (8.1%). The most significant changes observed were in energy metabolism, e.g., phosphocreatine was increased 4 fold and creatine kinase activity increased by 27.2%, a pattern opposite from heart failure, suggesting that the repetitive coronary stenosis and potentially hibernating myocardium have enhanced stress resistance capabilities. The improved energy metabolism could also be a key mechanism contributing to the cardioprotection observed in the repetitive coronary stenosis and in hibernating myocardium. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism".